Selling price per unit600The marketing department of the company anticipates 50% increase in the demand during the next period. General purpose machinery used to manufacture A,B and C is already working to the maximum capacity of 4752 hours and there is no possibility of increasing this capacity during the next period. But labour is available for making component D and E and also for assembly according to demand.


They do not make any distinction and make no impact in making selections. Firstly, by mistake, irrelevant prices are taken as relevant costs. They will complicate the situation as well as increase the chance of faults. Secondly, similar unit prices of fixed manufacturing prices are taken for different exercise level. In such instances, the use of related and irrelevant cost becomes very important to find out whether or not the new decision might be profitable or not. Relevant cost of materials is the incremental future cost of utilizing supplies in a proposed enterprise choice.

level of activity

Whereas Personal cost centers refer to person eg – Factory Manager, Sales Manager, Purchase Manager etc. The decision of the company whether to make the product in house or to outsource it to some other company depends upon a combination of all these factors. The company should not only focus on the costing part for this decision but also the qualitative part in order to make the correct decision for the company.

Identification of cost centers is very important because it provides a base (person/equipment/department etc) for which costs may be ascertained, controlled and reduced. Sunk cost as you might be already aware is a cost which has been incurred already and thus is not relevant for decision making. Sunk costs are not relevant for decision making because they are past costs. ’ This is a common phrase that is used as a general dialect now and then.

Discontinuing a product, suspending or closing down a segment of the business. Whenever a decision is taken as to whether the capacity is to be expanded or not, following points should be kept in mind. Possible use of related capacity and facility as a result of buying instead of making.

Based on the Nature of Expenses

Qualitative ones require subjective decisions and often need numerous opinions. Also, some of the factors involved can be quantified with certainty, while others must be estimated. The decision to make or buy requires a thorough analysis of all angles. Sunk costs are costs that have been created by a decision made in the past and that cannot be changed by any decision that will be made in the future. Relevant info is the expected future prices and incomes that can differ among the many alternatives related data .

relevant cost

Relevant price analysis is a cost accounting based analysis technique. It is simply an improved utility of basic rules to business choices. Indirect costs are expenses that could not be traced back to a single cost object or cost source. However, they are extremely important as they affect the total profitability. The idea behind the concept of opportunity cost is that the cost of one item is the lost opportunity to do something else. This technique is applicable to situations where fixed costs alter.

Sunk costs are irrelevant,but irrelevant costs are not sunk

Decisions to make or buy arise in business when a company must decide whether to produce goods internally or to buy goods externally. This is usually a problem when a company can manufacture material inputs needed for its production operations that are also available for purchase on the market. For example, a computer company may need to decide whether to manufacture circuit boards in-house or purchase them from a supplier. For example, the written down value of assets previously purchased are sunk costs. The relevance of value to determination alternative is determined by situation. It is established that historical value just isn’t related, only future cost is related.

Before taking the decision, managers must identify the variables that may have bearing on the decision and try to get information about those variables. Relevant cost, in managerial accounting, denotes to the incremental and unnecessary cost of implementing a business decision. Relevant cost analysis is a cost accounting based evaluation technique. It is just an improved application of basic principles to business decisions. The major factor in relevant costing is the capacity to clean what is and is not pertinent to a business choice.

Types of Cost Concept

When autocomplete results are available use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. As overall demand increase by 50%, we can not select to buy A. So make or buy decision remains between remains between B and C. Acceptance of an additional order form a special customer at lower than existing price.

The previous cost that has already been incurred on acquisition of supplies just isn’t relevant as a result of it constitutes a sunk price. The main point which distinguishes marginal cost and differential as that change in fixed cost when volume of production increases or decreases by a unit of production. In the case of differential cost variable as well as fixed cost. I.e. both costs change due to change in the level of activity, whereas under marginal costing only variable cost changes due to change in the level of activity.

The management is considering the purchase of one of the components A,B or C from the market to meet the increase demand. The essential pre-requisite for making managerial decisions by using incremental cost technique, is to compare the incremental costs with incremental revenues. If the products are making a contribution towards fixed expenses or in other words if selling price is above the marginal cost. It is preferable to continue because the losses are minimised. Before taking the decision, managers must determine the variables that may have bearing on the choice and try to get information about those variables.

Like the quality of products sometimes degrades and the customer doesn’t get the exact product it ordered. No doubt it is useful in many ways but also is very risky when it comes to the reputation of the firm. Relevant prices are the prices which might change because of the decision into consideration, the place as irrelevant prices are these which would remain unchanged by the choice. In our example, with the change in activity, the mounted overheads of $seventy five,000 will change with the change from a thousand models to 1100 models. They can hamper the whole calculation and decisions relying on these will adversely have an effect on the profits of the company. If a value is going to happen whatever the determination being examined, it is not a related price.

Financial Management & Cost Accounting

The board has issued 24 standards to create a better knowledge of distinct components of cost and better procedures to be used. The idea of opportunity cost in the concept of the cost was first begun by John Stuart Mill, a major in Economics. It is irrelevant because it does not afect the future cash lows of a business. When the plant is operating the fixed overheads are incurred at a uniform rate throughout the year. Additional costs of plant shut down for the quarter are estimated at ₹ 14,000.


When a production company gets any order in bulk so to maximize the profit it makes a promise to deliver the products in a very short period. To meet the expectation, the firm outsources and gives orders to the small production companies which produce the same types of products. Due to the big competition and for survival these small firms accept and deliver the orders at a cheap rate and on time because the amount ordered is small. Here the small firms generally have no after-effects but the main producing firm has to undergo many types of risks and difficulties.

Contribution from the other relevant vs irrelevant costsable product, which is proposed to produced with the balance capacity. To drop the unprofitable product and to utilize the capacity for the manufacture of a more remunerative product. Possible decrease in selling price due to increase in production. It is helpful to the management in making profitability calculation when one or more of the inputs required by one or more of the alternative course of action is already available.

To drop the un product and to leave the capacity unutilized. Whether the demand is sufficient to absorb the increased production. It is essential of controlling cost as well as of decision making.

I hope this blog helps you to understand why the company takes to outsource a particular product or why they dont. Qualitative factors to be considered require more subjective judgment. The decision to make or buy involves both quantitative and qualitative analysis.

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Types of Relevant Costing like Differential cost, Incremental or marginal cost, Opportunity cost and Irrelevant costs…. I.e. where fixed expenses have already been recovered by the local sales. In such cases if the export price is more than the marginal cost, it is preferable to enter the export market. Any reduction in the price prevailing the local market to fulfill surplus capacity capacity may have address effect on the normal local sales. Discretionary costs are also called “programmed cost / policy costs “.

  • It is established that historical value just isn’t related, only future cost is related.
  • So make or buy decision remains between remains between B and C.
  • Specific fixed costs of the unprofitable product, which can now be avoided or reduced.
  • Thus, the cost is nothing but a payment of value that is given in order to utilize the service or goods.
  • Q-1A ltd. engaged in manufacturing agricultural machinery is preparing annual budget for the coming year.

The increase in profit, if any, if the component suggested in point 3 is purchased from the market. 2) Whether it would be profitable to make any of the balance of components required on a second shift basis instead of buying them from outside suppliers. Supply of all or any part of the total requirement can be obtained at the following prices, each delivered to the factory.

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